Sunday, August 17, 2014

UFO spotted over Houston, Texas during thunderstorm

Dalia Ibrahim
Digital Reporter
Saturday, August 16, 2014, 8:33 PM -
Pictures posted on 
 earlier this week show something floating through the skies over Houston, TX. 
The images were shot Aug. 11 during a rain storm with dramatic thunder and lightning, and they have been re-posted and cited many times. 

The video was shot from a moving car, and the photos may be screenshots from the video.   Read more >>

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

The cost of living on the Moon

The cost of living on the Moon (Infographic)
by Jur

Some believe that the next ‘giant leap for mankind’ will be the colonisation of the Moon. To celebrate the 45th anniversary of of the Moon landing take a look at how much it would cost to live for one year on our celestial neighbor.  Read more  >>


Sunday, August 3, 2014

The Crew Of Ridley Scott’s ALIEN Will Return In….

[via IGN]


The worldwide video premiere of the cast can be seen in the brand new Pre-Order Trailer exclusively on here

Friday, June 20, 2014

EVA-38: Frustration morphs into success during Russian spacewalk


EVA-38: Frustration morphs into success during Russian spacewalk
June 19, 2014 by David Štula

Two Russian cosmonauts, Alexander Skvortsov and Oleg Artemyev, ventured out into the vacuum of space for a spacewalk on Thursday, tasked with carrying out important work – including the installation of an antenna – on outside of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian segment. The initial work proved to be frustrating for the cosmonauts, until they pressed on and completed all their required tasks.

The primary objectives of the spacewalk were focused at servicing the exterior of the Zvezda service module and the experiments mounted in that location.
The cosmonaut duo were tasked with installing an automated phased antenna array (AFAR), which will serve as part of the Russian command and telemetry system.
Artemyev and Skvortsov also relocated a part of the Obstanovka experiment – which is used to monitor the presence of charged particles and plasma in the environment of Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

Other tasks included verifying the correct installation of the universal work platform (URM-D), taking samples from one of Zvezda’s windows, and jettisoning an experiment frame.  Read more >>


Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Huge, Cigar-Shaped UFO Glides Over Ukraine City

Huge, Cigar-Shaped UFO Glides Over Ukraine City

A video recently surfaced on the Internet reportedly showing a large, elongated UFO gliding over Korosten, Ukraine, reports OpenMinds.TV.

The object was supposedly videotaped on March 6 over Korosten, which is located near Chernobyl, the site of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, where an explosion resulted in radioactive fallout that spread over tens of thousands of square miles.  Read more >>


Friday, June 13, 2014

The Time Travel of Kakudmi The King of Kusasthali

Kakudmi (sometimes also called Kakudmin, or Raivata, son of Revata) was the King of Kusasthali. He was the father of Revati who married Balarama. Within Hinduism, his account is given within a number of existing texts such as the Mahābhārata, the Devi Bhagavatam and the Bhagavata Purana.

Kakudmi was a descendant of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha), a dynasty originating from Surya, the Hindu deity of the Sun. Surya's son was the deity Vaivasvata Manu.

Vaivasvata Manu had one powerful son named Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku founded and spread the Sun (or Solar) dynasty. He was celebrated for his accomplishments in battle and his competence and benevolence.

Ikshvaku had one hundred sons of whom Vikuksi was the eldest. Vikuksi had many sons of whom S'aryâti was one. King S'aryâti had three sons, namely Uttânabarhi, Ânarta and Bhûrishena. Ânarta's eldest son was Revata.

King Revata constructed the city of Kusasthali and ruled from there. Kusasthali grew to became a prosperous and advanced kingdom. From Kusasthali, he also ruled over large tracts of land, including Anarta kingdom which was named after his father.

Revata had one hundred sons of whom Kakudmi (also called Raivata, son of Revata) was the eldest.

Character of Kakudmi
Kakudmi was of pure character, and a benevolent ruler. He had one very beautiful daughter named Revati, endowed with all auspicious qualities. Although considered human, Kakudmi seemed to have been endowed with mystic powers, not found in ordinary humans today. Kakudmi was able to take his daughter Revati with him and travel to Brahma-loka(the plane of existence where Brahma, the Creator, resides) and to speak with Brahma at will.


Meeting with Brahma
Kakudmi's daughter Revati was so beautiful and so accomplished that when she reached a marriageable age, Kakudmi, thinking no one upon earth was worthy of her, went to the Creator himself, Lord Brahma, to seek his advice about a suitable husband for his daughter.

When they arrived, Brahma was listening to a musical performance by the Gandharvas, so they waited patiently until the performance was finished. Then, Kakudmi bowed humbly, made his request and presented his shortlist of candidates. Brahma laughed loudly, and explained that time runs differently on different planes of existence, and that during the short time they had waited in Brahma-loka to see him, 27 catur-yugas (a cycle of four yugas, totalling 108 yugas, or Ages of Man) had passed on earth. 

Brahma said to Kakudmi, "O King, all those whom you may have decided within the core of your heart to accept as your son-in-law have died in the course of time. Twenty-seven catur-yugas have already passed. Those upon whom you may have already decided are now gone, and so are their sons, grandsons and other descendants. You cannot even hear about their names.  You must therefore bestow this virgin gem (i.e. Revati) upon some other husband, for you are now alone, and your friends, your ministers, servants, wives, kinsmen, armies, and treasures, have long since been swept away by the hand of time."

King Kakudmi was overcome with astonishment and alarm at hearing this news.  However, Brahma comforted him, and added that Vishnu, the preserver, was currently incarnate on earth in the forms of Krishna and Balarama, and he recommended Balarama as a worthy husband for Revati.

Kakudmi and Revati then returned to earth which they regarded as having left only just a short while ago. They were shocked by the changes that had taken place. Not only had the landscape and environment changed, but over the intervening 27 catur-yugas, in the cycles of human spiritual and cultural evolution, mankind was at a lower level of development than in their own time (see Ages of Man). The Bhagavata Purana describes that they found the race of men had become "dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in intellect."

Daughter and father found Balarama and proposed the marriage which was accepted. The marriage was then duly celebrated.

After the marriage
After the marriage had been celebrated, Kakudmi considered his fatherly duties to have been completed. Following the advice Brahma gave him during their meeting, he went north to the Himalayas, to Badrinath (the place where Nara-Narayana is still worshipped today) to engage in meditation and ascetic practices.

The Devi Bhagavatam describes that "according to Brahmâ's injunction, he became engaged in severe austerities in Badrinath and, when the time of death arrived, left off his mortal coil on the banks of the river and went to the world of Gods.

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Sunken Ancient Egyptian City Discovered


Sunken Ancient Egyptian City Discovered

Monday, May 19, 2014

Mystery objects in Chinese sky after claims moon rover "killed by UFO"

Mystery objects in Chinese sky after claims moon rover "killed by UFO"
by Rob Waugh

When the Chinese moon rover Jade Rabbit broke down after travelling a mere 60 feet across the moon’s surface, scientists and engineers knew who to blame: aliens.

The government announced that it had fallen victim to extreme cold - but some state-run magazines and TV shows offered another explanation, with the support of some scientists, and even members of the military.

China's Jade Rabbit moon rover ran into problems on January 25 as it was shutting down in preparation for the …

Nigel Watson, author of The Haynes UFO Investigations Manual says that the thousands of Chinese UFO enthusiasts believe that, "it was either nobbled by aliens or the USA.  This would be to prevent the robot from discovering bases and other secret technology on the surface of the Moon."

More UFO sightings have followed - including a "head-sized" ball of light which flew into a house in Qihe County, according to Shandong Qilu radio.  

Source: Yahoo News

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

'Quiet Sun' baffling astronomers

Credit: 'Still Sun' baffling astronomers

The Sun is the dimmest it has been for nearly a century.

There are no sunspots, very few solar flares - and our nearest star is the quietest it has been for a very long time.

The observations are baffling astronomers, who are due to study new pictures of the Sun, taken from space, at the UK National Astronomy Meeting.

The Sun normally undergoes an 11-year cycle of activity. At its peak, it has a tumultuous boiling atmosphere that spits out flares and planet-sized chunks of super-hot gas. This is followed by a calmer period.

Last year, it was expected that it would have been hotting up after a quiet spell. But instead it hit a 50-year low in solar wind pressure, a 55-year low in radio emissions, and a 100-year low in sunspot activity.  Read more >>


Tuesday, May 6, 2014

The Best Daylight Cluster UFO Capture Over Sydney


Source: Youtube

Sunday, April 27, 2014

UFO Captured Above Germany April 22, 2014

UFO Capture Over Germany

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Latest UFO news pictures of UFO sightings reports Worldwide


Diamond UFO Passes Over Argentina Soccer Game

Diamond UFO Passes Over Argentina Soccer Game, April 11, 2014, VIDEO, UFO Sighting News.
Credit: UFO Sightings Daily

Date of sighting: April 11, 2014
Location of sighting: Boedo, Argentina

This UFO was caught by accident by an Argentina soccer fan (Youtube user "Musicuervo") who caught it as it passed over the excited spectators. With all the cheering of this game and it being a final goal celebration, the person just didn't notice as the UFO passed overhead.  If you want to see the UFO, please jump to 1:20 into the video where you will see it circle the stadium. As it gets closer, the objects diamond-like shape stands out.  Read More >>

Monday, April 14, 2014

UFO or a stealth plane?

UFO or a stealth plane? Mysterious triangular objects spotted flying in formation over Texas

Aircraft enthusiast Steve Douglass picked up a pilot's voice over his radio and then spotted three strange aircraft zooming across the sky

Credit: Mystery: Plane experts said the craft could be a classified stealth jet

An unexplained triangular-shaped UFO is baffling aviation experts.
The mysterious craft was seen with two others above Texas by plane spotter Steve Douglass, who quickly took this picture.

Aviation experts believe the photograph to be genuine and rumours are spreading it could in fact be a secret military jet.

In the seconds before picking up his camera, Steve claims to have listened in to a conversation between pilots on his radio, adding fuel to the classified aircraft claims.  Read more >>

Friday, April 4, 2014

The Piney Woods Incident

The Piney Woods Incident, Cash-Landrum

An extremely haunting UFO sighting which has well stood the test of time was an event which took place in the Piney Woods of Texas, near the town of Huffman. On the chilly night of December 29.1980, two women and one child encountered a craft of unknown origin, and all three suffered not only emotional trauma, but severe physical injury as well.

A drive through the Piney Woods of Texas at night is a lonely, somewhat spooky one to begin with, but on this particular night, a routine drive turned into a life changing event for these three people.

Fifty-one year old Betty Cash was driving through the woods traveling from New Caney to Dayton on Farm to Market road 1485. Riding with her was her friend, Vickie Landrum, fifty-seven years old, and Vickie's seven year old grandson, Colby. They were looking for an open Bingo game, but found all of them closed down for the Holiday season. They stopped for a meal at a restaurant, and then continued their journey.

Soon, the three began to see a light in the distance, and in a few short minutes this light became a glowing object, slowly crossing the tops of the tall pine trees. The area that they were in was densely occupied by pine and oak trees, surrounded by occasional swamps and small lakes. As they proceeded along their way, their initial thought was that the object was an airplane or helicopter from one of the airfields not too distant from their location.  read more >>

The Cash-Landrum UFO Incident

Source:,youtube by klarazg

Thursday, February 27, 2014

NASA's Kepler telescope finds 715 new planets

Image credit: ctv news

NASA's Kepler telescope finds 715 new planets outside solar system

The Associated Press 
Published Wednesday, February 26, 2014 2:39PM EST
Last Updated Wednesday, February 26, 2014 7:48PM EST
WASHINGTON -- The Earth's galaxy is looking far more crowded and hospitable. NASA on Wednesday confirmed a bonanza of 715 newly discovered planets outside the solar system.

Douglas Hudgins, NASA's exoplanet exploration program scientist, called the announcement a major step toward the planet-hunting Kepler telescope's ultimate goal: "finding Earth 2.0."

It's a big step in not just finding other Earths, but "the possibility of life elsewhere," said Lisa Kaltenegger, a Harvard and Max Planck Institute astronomer who wasn't part of the discovery team.

Scientists using the Kepler telescope pushed the number of planets discovered in the galaxy to about 1,700. Twenty years ago, astronomers had not found any planets circling stars other than the ones revolving around the sun.

"We almost doubled just today the number of planets known to humanity," NASA planetary scientist Jack Lissauer said in a teleconference.

Astronomers used a new confirmation technique to come up with the largest single announcement of a batch of exoplanets -- what planets outside our solar system are called.

Wednesday's announcements also were about implications for life behind those big numbers.

Image credit:

All the new planets are in systems like ours where multiple planets circle a star. The 715 planets came from looking at just 305 stars. They were nearly all in size closer to Earth than gigantic Jupiter.

And four of those new exoplanets orbit their stars in "habitable zones" where it is not too hot or not too cold for liquid water which is crucial for life to exist.
The four new habitable zone planets are all at least twice as big as Earth so that makes them more likely to be gas planets instead of rocky ones like Earth -- and less likely to harbour life.

So far Kepler has found nine exoplanets in the habitable zone, NASA said. Astronomers expect to find more when they look at all four years of data collected by the now-crippled Kepler; so far they have looked at two years.
Planets in the habitable zone are likely to be farther out from their stars because it is hot close in. And planets farther out take more time orbiting, so Kepler has to wait longer to see it again.

Another of Kepler's latest discoveries indicates that "small planets are extremely common in our galaxy," said MIT astronomer Sara Seagar, who wasn't part of the discovery team. "Nature wants to make small planets."

And, in general, smaller planets are more likely to be able to harbour life than big ones, Kaltenegger said.

Source: CTV News

Friday, February 21, 2014

Baltic Sea anomaly

baltic sea ufo anomaly update 14,000 years old

Baltic Sea anomaly
The Baltic Sea anomaly is the name given to a large 60-metre (200 ft) circular rock-like formation discovered at the bottom of the Baltic Sea by Peter Lindberg, Dennis Åsberg and their Swedish-based diving team, "Ocean X Team" on June 19, 2011. Several experts have stated that it is most likely a natural geological formation rather than an "anomalous" object.

Friday, January 31, 2014

UFO Sightings 2013

UFO Sightings 2013


George Clinton UFO Encounter

George Clinton UFO Encounter

George Clinton Outtake: MY Encounter with a UFO
Credit Image:

 Situated within an otherwise straightforward conversation with George Clinton was a story that we will never forget. In so many words, this is a direct account of his alleged encounter with a UFO, while driving with Bootsy Collins. Not one to mince words, this seemed to be no joking matter to Clinton, who noted that he went ten whole years without talking about the event subsequent to its occurrence. Whether this is a part of the grand mythos of the Dr. Funkenstein universe or a genuine moment in an already intriguing life, we will let you decide.
GC: We had just come back from Detroit and we were on our way down to Miami to go fishing, but first we had to go pick up my son in New Jersey. We got there that morning around 10 o’ clock. We came past the airport and saw a light. Neither one of us said anything, but when we got to the spot, both of us looked around. It was like a beam of light from the clouds coming straight down. Now this is daylight, so the weird thing in your mind is ‘Damn. Light in daylight’? That’s what was going on in my mind. So we drove on and forgot about it. Maybe five minutes later, two blocks ahead of us, we see the light coming through the trees. But it sparkled this time likeelectricity. As soon as it did that it hit on the same block that we were on, but on the opposite side of the street. So there was like one, then two and then the third one hit the car on the fender on thepassenger side. It looked like how when you break a thermometer, the mercury runs like oil and water. When it hit the car it splattered like lit up mercury and rolled off the side of the car.

Credit Image:

Now remember I said that the first one we saw was in daylight? Well, we didn’t remember this part I’m about to tell you – Bootsy or myself – for ten years. When it hit the car, I saw some headlights in back of us and the streetlights were getting darker ahead of us and we’re not seeing any cars. We were the only ones on the streets for about ten blocks. I look back behind me and the headlights that I saw before were gone. We were the only ones on the streets. It’s dark. We get about ten blocks from my house, we pull up to my apartment and just sit in the car. My daughter comes out to my car and she says ‘Why y’all look like y’all seen a ghost’? I said to her ‘Give me a kiss. I’m about to go to bed’. It took us a long time to talk about it, but about ten years later, I saw something about losing time and I remembered that five minutes before the light hit the car that the concern was daylight. We had just gotten there from an all-night session in Detroit, so it couldn’t have been but 10 o’ clock at first, but by the time we got to the house, we were dealing with 7 o’ clock at night and it didn’t occur to me until I called Bootsy. At that point, we both know that some time was missing.

By Paul Pennington

Latest UFO Sightings Shocking NASA Best UFO's Footage

Latest UFO Sightings Shocking NASA Best UFO's Footage

Water Could Help Make Better Batteries

Water Could Help Make Better Batteries


Water could be the key to producing a cheaper, more environmentally friendly and less dangerous way of making the lithium-ion batteries that power so many everyday gadgets, researchers say.

Currently, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are typically found in mobile devices such as cellphones, laptops and tablet computers, and they are increasingly being used to power hybrid and electric vehicles. As their uses grow, scientists would like to manufacture the batteries in a manner that's both less expensive and more environmentally friendly.

"The application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles is hindered by their high cost," researcher Jianlin Li, a materials scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, told TechNewsDaily. "For example, the cost of the lithium-ion batteries in the Nissan Leaf and Chevy Colt is about $500 per kilowatt-hour, which is almost five times of the target cost — $110 per kilowatt-hour — of an electric vehicle lithium-ion battery set by the president's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge."

Currently, more than 80 percent of the costs of making lithium-ion batteries are due to materials and the processing of those materials. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee are now aiming to reduce the price of both of these factors.

All batteries generate electricity by flowing electric current between two electrodes — a positively charged cathode and a negatively charged anode. Cathodes make up about 70 percent of the total cost of high-power batteries, and the organic solvent used to make the lithium ion battery cathodes, N-methylpyrrolidone or NMP, is expensive, toxic and generates flammable vapors. Making batteries with this solvent also requires expensive, explosion-proof processing equipment and costly solvent recovery and recycling systems.
Instead of using NMP, the researchers say they can replace it with a system that uses water, which is much safer, greener and at least 150 times cheaper than the organic solvent.

Replacing NMP with water is tricky because the slurries, or fluids containing the materials used to make the battery's electrodes, behaves in very different ways if water is employed. For instance, water-based slurries are typically not as good at coating the current collector, the material that gathers electric charge from the electrode.

"While it seems quite straightforward to substitute expensive and toxic NMP with water in battery manufacturing, it is very complicated and requires extensive knowledge in science and engineering to realize it," Li said.

The scientists employed a number of different tricks to get water to work. For instance, treating the current collector with electrified plasma alters its surface in ways that makes water-based slurries coat it better. Additives in the slurries also help prevent the particles from clumpingtogether.

Previous work could help scientists manufacture lithium-ion battery anodes using water. However, until now, "no one has been successful with both anodes and cathodes," Li said.

Using this method, the researchers have created a battery that features excellent performance comparable to conventional batteries. Replacing NMP with water promises to reduce the overall costs of lithium ion batteries by about one-eighth, and "the whole process is much more environmentally benign," Li said. "This allows the battery manufacturing more sustainable and affordable."

The scientists currently have a patent pending on their technology. They detailed their latest findings online May 25 in the Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.


Unprecedented Storm

Unprecedented Storm

Haiyan brought sustained winds of 235km/h (147mph), with gusts of 275 km/h (170 mph), with waves as high as 15m (45ft), bringing up to 400mm (15.75 inches) of rain in places.  "The world has not seen a storm like this before," said Senen Mangalile, the Philippines Consul General to the UK.  Steven Godby, a disaster management expert at Nottingham Trent University, told the BBC the typhoon was "probably the most intense and strongest storm of this type to make landfall".

"We've seen storms like this perhaps on rare occasions that have had that kind of intensity out at sea but for it to come ashore with that kind of strength is almost unprecedented," Dr Godby said.  American military aircraft and ships are being deployed to provide help. US President Barack Obama has issued a message saying he was "deeply saddened by the loss of life and extensive damage".

Three days after Typhoon Haiyan hit, aerial photos are revealing a scene of apocalyptic devastation along a swathe of the central Philippines.


UFO sightings off South African coastline

UFO sightings off South African coastline

Credit Image:

UFO sightings off South African coastline soar in February

The founder of UFO Research of South Africa says reports of unidentified flying objects off theSouth African coast near Cape Town rose dramatically during the week of Feb. 21-27.
Many of the sightings can be explained away by meteor showers, said Gert Jordaan, who tracks such reports on his UFO Research website, The Telegraph reported. But many cannot.

“Though meteors do glow orange, some of the sightings reported radical change in direction and speed,” he said in The Telegraph. “Some objects even remained stationary for five minutes or so. There might be some UFO phenomena occurring in areas around Cape Town.”

Mr. Jordaan suggested the UFOs could be due to “some top-secret aircraft” tests — or life forms from other planets are tracking Earthlings.

“The second possibility is that life from another planet is surveying ours for making contact and offering knowledge,” he said in The Telegraph.




Amid all the phantasmagoric special effects and puzzling symbolism of Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film '2001: A Space Odyssey,' the one detail that sticks in everyone's memory is the HAL 9000 computer that ran most of the spaceship Discovery One's operations. Not only did HAL speak and possess a humanlike personality, but it actually was superior to humans, because it never made mistakes.

But when the year 2001 actually rolled around, what inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil calls 'strong AI' -- that is, a machine that possesses self-awareness and is equal or superior to humans in intellectual ability -- was still closer to science fiction than reality.

That's with a few caveats. In 2011, the supercomputer Watson went head-to-head with 'Jeopardy!' contestants and won mightily. However, just because a computer can answer questions -- and Watson is a very sophisticated 'question-answering machine' -- it doesn't necessarily mean it's smarter than a human [source: Markoff].

In a 2005 essay, Kurzweil, who estimates that a computer would need to be capable of performing 10 quadrillion calculations per second to match all the regions of the human brain, predicted that threshold would be reached by 2020 [source: Kurzweil]. (Watson uses 80 trillion operations per second, the slowpoke [source: Deedrick].)

Others, such as Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, have expressed doubts about whether machines ever will be able to even approximate human intelligence. He noted that neuroscientists still don't really know enough about the brain yet to hope to duplicate it. 'You can't create an artificial intelligence,' Allen insisted in a 2012 Forbes interview, 'unless you know how the real thing works.'


Strange Case of the Michigan Flying Wing UFO

Strange Case of the Michigan Flying Wing UFO

 As we passed the ‘airplane’ in slow-motion stop and go traffic, I noticed it was NOT an airplane, and why would it be one anyway? as there is not enough length to the fields there to land a real airplane.

I have driven past this area literally millions of times since I was 5-years-old, and I am now 53. The ‘airplane’ turned out to be a wing-shaped UFO about 100 feet across. I pointed it out to my wife, and remarked that it was not an airplane, but an honest-to goodness-real UFO.

She looked at it, and said: “That’s a cell phone tower.” I said it is not, as I know everything in existence all along both sides of the freeway, having driven on it for so long, and she proceeded to argue with me that it “… couldn’t be a UFO, it has to be this or that, but not a UFO.”

It was like she could not physically ‘see’ the UFO, like her mind was being blocked by something. Why else would she suggest it being a cell phone tower when it obviously was lying on the ground, and it was all lit up, and it was shaped like a giant flying wing, just like that experimental one the Nazis built during WW-II, a precursor to the Stealth designs.

I had a very good, leisurely, long look at it, and I know what I saw. But it gets even weirder from there.
We finally arrived at the site of the accident that caused us to do the stop and go thing for over two hours, when it would normally take 45 minutes to drive to that spot. We were crawling along at 5 to 10 miles per hour when we arrived at the ‘accident site.’  read more

Source : About UFOs

Watery asteroid discovered in dying star points to habitable exoplanets

Watery asteroid discovered in dying star points to habitable exoplanets
Artist's impression of a rocky and water-rich asteroid being torn apart by the strong gravity of thewhite dwarf star GD 61. Similar objects in the solar system likely delivered the bulk of water on Earth and represent the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. Credit: © Mark A. Garlick,, University of Warwick and University of Cambridge

Astronomers have found the shattered remains of an asteroid that contained huge amounts of water orbiting an exhausted star, or white dwarf. This suggests that the star GD 61 and itsplanetary system – located about 150 light years away and at the end of its life – had the potential to contain Earth-like exoplanets, they say.

This is the first time that both water and a rocky surface - two "key ingredients" for habitable planets - have been found together beyond our solar system.

Earth is essentially a 'dry' planet, with only 0.02% of its mass as surface water, so oceans came long after it had formed; most likely when water-rich asteroids in the solar system crashed into our planet.

The new discovery shows that the same water 'delivery system' could have occurred in this distant, dying star's solar system – as latest evidence points to it containing a similar type of water-rich asteroid that would have first brought water to Earth.

The asteroid analysed is composed of 26% water mass, very similar to Ceres, the largest asteroid in the main belt of our solar system. Both are vastly more water-rich compared with Earth.

Astronomers at the Universities of Cambridge and Warwick say this is the first "reliable evidence" for water-rich, rocky planetary material in any extrasolar planetary system.
They describe it as a "look into our future" as, six billion years from now, alien astronomers studying the rocky remains around our burned out sun might reach the same conclusion - that terrestrial planets once circled our parent star.
The new research findings used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and are reported today in the journal Science.

All rocky planets form from the accumulation of asteroids, growing until full size, so asteroids are essentially the 'building blocks' of planets.

"The finding of water in a large asteroid means the building blocks of habitable planets existed – and maybe still exist – in the GD 61 system, and likely also around substantial number of similarparent stars," said lead author Jay Farihi, from Cambridge's Institute of Astronomy.

"These water-rich building blocks, and the terrestrial planets they build, may in fact be common – a system cannot create things as big as asteroids and avoid building planets, and GD 61 had the ingredients to deliver lots of water to their surfaces," Farihi said.

"Our results demonstrate that there was definitely potential for habitable planets in this exoplanetary system."

The researchers say that the water detected most likely came from a minor planet, at least 90 km in diameter but probably much larger, that once orbited the GD 61 star before it became a white dwarf around 200 million years ago.

Previous and current astronomical observations have measured the size and density of exoplanets, but not their composition.

This is because conventional work was done on planets orbiting living stars. But the only way to see what a distant planet is made of is to take it apart, say the researchers, and nature does this for us in a dying white dwarf system through its extreme gravitational pull – sucking in and shredding the surrounding material.

This debris, which "pollutes" the atmosphere of the white dwarf, can then be chemically analysed using powerful spectrograph techniques that "distill the entire asteroid, core and all", they say.

The team detected a range of "elemental abundance" in the white dwarf's contaminated atmosphere – such as magnesium, silicon and iron, which, together with oxygen are the main components of rocks.

By calculating the number of these elements relative to oxygen, the researchers were able to predict how much oxygen should be in the atmosphere of the white dwarf – but they found "significantly" more oxygen than if 
there were only rocks.

"This oxygen excess can be carried by either water or carbon, and in this star there is virtually no carbon – indicating there must have been substantial water," said co-author Boris Gänsicke, from the University of Warwick.

"This also rules out comets, which are rich in both water and carbon compounds, so we knew we were looking at a rocky asteroid with substantial water content – perhaps in the form of subsurface ice – like the asteroids we know in our solar system such as Ceres," Gänsicke said.

Ultraviolet observations are the only way to obtain such precise measurement of oxygen levels in the white dwarf's debris – and that can only be carried out above the Earth's atmosphere.

The team used the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard Hubble to get the data required, with chemical analysis computed by team member Detlev Koester from the University of Kiel.

The "planetary bodies" such as these asteroids that fall into and pollute this dying star – which, in its heyday, was three times 'heavier' than our sun – also reveal that giant exoplanets probably still exist in this remote and withering system.

"In order for the asteroids to pass sufficiently close to the white dwarf to be shredded, then eaten, they must perturbed from the asteroid belt – essentially pushed – by a massive object like a giant planet," added Farihi.
"These asteroids tell us that the GD 61 system had – or still has – rocky, terrestrial planets, and the way they pollute the white dwarf tells us that giant planets probably still exist there.

"This supports the idea that the star originally had a full complement of terrestrial planets, and probably gas giant planets, orbiting it – a complex system similar to our own."
 Oct 10, 2013


In The Brain at Will

In The Brain at Will

                    Who lives in this marvelous Hall of living walls of mortared osseous tissues fitted with the various ocular, tactual, auditory, olfactory and gustatory doors? This hall of life, the human skull, presents a veritable epitome of a huge State. It includes the range of hilly convolutions of the cerebrum, inlaid with the arterial streamlets and dark rivers of veins. Is this exquisite territory vacant, unoccupied? Is this hall filled just with a senseless mass of physical cells? Is there a book without an author, a child without parents, a clock without a maker, a rose without a designer? Nay—and similarly there are wondrous Ruling Agencies behind thisKingdom of Mystic Beauty. Beneath the dome of the human skull is enacted scenes of intense activity, pulsating life and intelligence. The strange colony of myriads of little brainy cells are guided and controlled by a mixed host of good and impish ...invisible —sprites, pixies and fairies of Unseen Habits.
                   There ....the little blood corpuscles are paddling their tiny boats laden with various vitalcommodities in the arterial stream. There is buying and selling—absorption and elimination ...going on here. The little intelligent cells are engaged in banqueting or introspecting ....or receiving the guests of sensations from the outer sensory doors. Some, are creating mischief by inviting sprites of invisible Disorderly Habits into the Great Common-Wealth.

                    The Habit Lords, and the Commoners—the brain-cells— are gathered together and are furiously debating ....who should assume the responsibility of the Bodily Government. These United States of Flesh have been the scenes of many wars and revolutions. At certain election times, the whole State is in disorder and confusion. Who is going to be President? How many votes will the various candidates receive? Every human Action, mentally or physically performed, is a voter. When a particular Action is repeated, it swells the number of its votes and a huge number of such Actions ...elects a certain Habit-Candidate. Then a collective vote of All Human Action —determines at different periods of life, which Habit is going to be the predominant one and rule supreme.

                  Election by numerical superiority often ignores the qualitative standard. If the majority of voters are morons or criminals, they are bound to blunder and elect the wrong Habit-Candidate. Unless the Voting Human Actions are guided by the supreme law of discrimination, they enslave themselves anew under an Undesirable Ruler.

                  A true Spiritual Democracy in this Bodily Kingdom —necessitates the thorough education of the Voting Human Activities. They should not only depend on their numerical power of repetition, but also on the quality of attentive performance. Above all, they should be trained to be guided by Ideal Rationalism —and warned against the bribing effects of Sentimental Environment, leading to the misuse of their voting powers. The power of reason should select the candidates. Habits of anger, greed, envy, drinking, excessive smoking, coffee or tea drinking, sloth, failure ....result from their being elected to office by unwise hordes of little Actions, whose numerical strength alone elected them ....without thought of the after-effects of enslavement. Habit-Slaves are not born, they make themselves so, unknowingly or knowingly thru their constantly repeated actions. The first drink never made a drunkard; the first act of sensuality ...never made a sensual slave; the first use of dope ...never made a dope-fiend. A series of mechanical or thoughtless repetitions of the wrong action elected the Gripping Habit as Ruler. Quantitative strength won against the weak qualitative voice of reason ...that had no votes because it had not been exercising its powers.

                  Guard yourself against the first performance of Evil Actions. What you will do once are liable to do again. Like a rolling snowball, Habit grows stronger and bigger by repetition. Use your reason in all your Actions — otherwise you become converted into helpless slaves of Undesirable Habits.

                   A strong Bad-Habit —presiding for a long time in the Bodily State, brings chaos and misery. Spiritual famine, mental fevers, universal poverty of body and brain ...exist in a Kingdom thus misruled. A strong Bad-Habit should be impeached before a tribunal of Daily Introspective and Conscience Judges, who should inform the Daily-Offending-Actions that the inevitable outcome of their persistence will be a nervous breakdown, wasted youth and exploded happiness. This constant note of warning ...may serve gradually to awaken the enslaved reason and will of the Habit-Bound Victim.

                   Many excessive smokers, drunkards, sex-slaves are not free because they do not think they are doing wrong and because they don't die immediately. But though the shovels of Habit dig slowly, yet they dig surely ....a yawning untimely grave, preceded by the scorching flames of suffering.

                  Convince your Actions of the tyranny of the Undesirable Ruling Habit first, then begin the work of constitutional agitation and actual impeachment. A whining or sorrowing attitude, remonstrance, or even violent but spasmodic rebellion of little avail. You are the maker of your Habits and you must undo them by regular effort.

                   Relate your Actions to new ...better ways. Keep them continuously —busy, interested, attentive— in serving and fraternizing with Good Actions. If the Actions begin to revert back to their old dangerous associations ...don't get discouraged. Persist, give sufficient time and attention ...and the voting strength of the New Actions will increase and finally get power enough to overthrow the worthless Ruler and elect in his place, their own Good-Candidate Habit.

                   A Bad Habit takes time to attain supremacy, so why be impatient about the growth of its rivalling Good Habit? Do not despair about your Undesirable Habits, simply stop feeding them by repetition.

                   The time used in the formation of Habits ...varies with the individual kind of nervous system and brain cells, and is chiefly determined by the quality of attention. But any Habit can be installed in the brain, almost instantaneously at will, by creating brain-grooves ...thru the power of deep trained attention.                      

                   True Democracy presupposes rational, willing obedience to good laws —ungoaded by Higher Authority or any other external influences whatsoever. Similarly, a Wise Man —one who is really free ...avoids error and performs good —not compelled by Habit—but from free reasonable choice.

                   "To him who hath ...shall be given; but from him who hath not ...shall be taken away —even that which he hath." This Biblical statement is very true of Habits. A man of Good Actions increases in virtue, but a slave of Bad Habits —loses all power of will and reason.

                   All national tastes, human customs —are results of Habits— and are environmental in nature. Love of Americanism or Hinduism is the outcome of Habit and familiarity. When I was a baby —if I had a choice— I would have preferred to be a human chameleon to embrace the desirable aspects of all nations and creeds.

                   Government of Actions by internal self-evolved discrimination —unguided by Good or Bad Habits— imparts unbounded power of will. A man with such power can instantly fix a New Habit in his brain, or stop one at will, without feeling the compulsion of a Habit-President. One must not be dominated by a Good Habit either, because the Habit may be in power ...simply because there has never been any temptation of Evil. Such a Good Habit is not permanently fixed in the nature, because it is born —not from choice and reason, but thru circumstance.

                   One way we can test our power over our Habits is to command the mind to like or dislike a certain food at will. When I first arrived in America, I was served at a dinner —some Roquefort cheese and crackers. No sooner had Mr. Roquefort touched the palate and its arrival become known to the cerebral cells ...than the Habit Lords rebelled and were about to upset the Honored Guests in my stomach. I didn't enjoy this sudden embarrassment, and saw that everyone else at the table was greatly enjoying this particular cheese. I strongly urged my senses to immediately elect the Roquefort-cheese-enjoying Habit. I liked the taste at once and do so to this day.

                   Why do things happen contrary to your desires? Because ...your Habits are also contrary to your desires, and —your Actions flatter your Habits. Your Habits must cater to your True Ideals.

                   Habit is an automatic mental mechanism for performing Actions ......without the labor involved in initiating New Actions. Wrongly used, this mechanism becomes man's arch-enemy. Be practical. Try from today to overcome the hidden Enemy-Habits within you —garbed with your environmental likings—and be free to act from reason alone. Your Habits are not you. Be yourself ...and you will remember the lost image of God within you.